Allergic rhinitis is defined as symptoms of sneezing, nasal pruritus, airflow obstruction and especially clear nasal discharge caused by IgE-mediated reactions to inhaled allergens and involving inflammation of the mucosa driven by T 2 helper type 2 cells. Important allergens include seasonal pollen and molds as well as indoor perennial allergens such as dust mites, domestic animals, pests, and some molds.

  1. J. Bousquet, N. Khaltaev. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). Allergy 2008: 63 (Suppl. 86): 8–160.
  2. Purushothama V. Dasaraju and Chien Liu. Infections of the Respiratory System. Medical Microbiology. 4th edition.
  3. GINA Global Strategy for asthma managenment and prevention 2015.
  4. Bhattacharyya N, Gubbels SP. Clinical Practice Guideline : Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (Update). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 Mar;156(3_suppl):S1-S47. doi: 10.1177/0194599816689667.